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CBSE Class 10 Board Exam Social Science Paper Analysis
|Type of Questions||Question Number||Marks per Question|
|Very short answer type||1 to 7||1|
|Short answer type||8 to 18||3|
|Long answer type||19 to 25||5|
|Map questions (History)||26||2|
|Map questions (Geography)||27||3|
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science 2019 Delhi
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science 2019 Delhi Set I
Section – A
Interpret the concept of ‘liberalisation’ in the field of the economic sphere during the nineteenth century in Europe. 
Interpret the contribution of French in the economic development of the Mekong Delta region.
In the economic sphere, ‘Liberalism’ stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital. Duties were levied according to the weight or measurement of the goods which were different for different states. Liberalisation meant reduction of custom , duties and removal of these quotas. A unified economic territory allowing the unhindered movement of goods, people and capital was the need of the hour. In 1834, Zollverein, a customs union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two. This was the main concept of Liberalisation prevalent in the 19th century in Europe.
Canals were built and lands were drained in the Mekong delta, to increase rice cultivation, by the government. Forced labour for construction were of irrigation facilities to improve rice cultivation was used and infrastructure and transportation facilities were developed for the export of agricultural produce.
Infrastructure projects were undertaken for the transportation of goods for trade, movement of military garrison and to establish control over the entire region.
How had hand printing technology introduced in Japan? 
How had translation process of novels into regional languages helped to spread their popularity?
Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand printing technology in Japan around 768-770 AD.
English novels translated into regional Indian languages, were not very popular as the Indian people could not relate to the stories or characters in those novels. People wanted novels that narrated stories close to their own lives and was set in their own geographic location.
Novels became important piece of literary work that connected cultures and people. With this, more novels began to be published, a new readership of novel came to be formed. More people were interested in reading and buying books this made them popular. Women, children workers also became part of the reading culture.
How is over irrigation responsible for land degradation in Punjab? 
How is cement industry responsible for land degradation?
Over-irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to water logging leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil. This and continuous use of land over a long period of time without taking appropriate measures to conserve and manage land has resulted in land degradation in Punjab.
Mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry generates heavy amount of dust which is released in the atmosphere. Later, it settles down in the surrounding areas which retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil. This is how land gets degraded due to Cement industries.
How can democratic reforms be carried out by political conscious citizens? 
The most important concern should be to increase and improve the quality of political participation by ordinary citizens. Politically conscious citizens are aware about their duties and rights as entitled by the constitution, this gives them an upper hand for they are able to judge between right and wrong. They are also able to spread this awareness around by holding discussions or generally through the word of mouth and help in formation of Public opinion. Politically aware citizens have better knowledge of diplomacy and world politics.
What may be a goal of landless rural labourers regarding their income? 
What may be a goal of the prosperous farmer of Punjab?
Goals of a landless rural labourer are:
- More days of work and better wages
- Local school is able to provide quality education for their children. (Anyone)
Goals of a prosperous farmer of Punjab are:
- Assured high family income.
- Easy availability of cheap labourers. (Anyone)
Distinguish between ‘Primary’ and ‘Secondary’ Sector. 
Primary Sector: It covers those activities that involve the production of goods directly using natural resources.
Secondary Sector: It covers those activities in which natural products are changed into other forms through manufacturing. This is the next step after primary activity.
Why do banks or lenders demand collateral against loans? 
Collateral is something of value – an asset or property that the borrower pledges when getting a loan, such as land, building, vehicle etc.. This is used as a guarantee by the lender until the loan is repaid. If the borrower fails to repay the loan, the lender is free to sell the collateral and reimburse his amount. Thus collateral acts like a guarantee against loan.
Section – B
How had Napoleonic code exported to the regions under French control? Explain with examples. [3 × 1 = 3]
Explain with examples the three barriers that are responsible to economic growth in Vietnam.
- It did away all privileges based on birth.
- It established equality before the law.
- It secured the right to property.
- Abolished feudal dues.
Through a return to monarchy, Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient. In the Dutch Republic, Switzerland, Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed a new-found freedom. Businessmen and small-scale producers of goods, in particular, began to realise that uniform law, standardised weights and measures, and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
There were several barriers to economic growth in Vietnam:
- High population level in Vietnam hindered the growth of the country.
- Another was low agricultural productivity. To reduce rural poverty and increase agricultural productivity it was necessary to carry out land reforms as the Japanese had done in the 1890s. But sufficient employment could not be generated as expected.
- Extensive indebtedness among the peasants because of less funds.
- The French colonialists did little to industrialise Vietnam and in the rural areas, landlordism spread and the standard of living declined.
How had the Imperial State in China been the major producer of printed material for a long time? Explain with examples. [3 × 1 = 3]
How had novels been easily available to the masses in Europe during nineteenth century? Explain with examples.
From AD 594 onwards, books in China were printed by rubbing paper – also invented there against the inked surface of woodblocks. The imperial state in China was, for a very long time, the major producer of printed material. China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personnel through civil service examinations.
Textbooks for this examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of the imperial state. From the sixteenth century, the number of examination candidates went up and that increased the volume of print. By the seventeenth century, as urban culture bloomed in China, the uses of print diversified. Reading increasingly became a leisure activity. Women, revolutionaries, poets and even merchants used print in everyday life.
Novels have been easily available to the masses in Europe because of the following reasons:
- Invention of Printing Press and other technological advancements were mainly responsible for the growing popularity of novels in Europe.
- Development in means of transportation and communication made it possible to send the copies of novels all over the Europe.
- Setting up of public libraries or lending libraries made novels easily accessible.
Describe any three main features of ‘Rabi crop season’. [3 × 1 = 3]
Describe any three main features of ‘Kharif crop season’.
Features of Rabi crop season:
- It begins with the withdrawal of monsoon in October. They are sown in winters from October to December.
- At the time of ripening, it requires bright sunshine.
- Crops depend on sub-soil moisture.
- Requires less rainfall between 50-75 cm. Availability of precipitation during winter months due to western temperate cyclones help in the success of these crops.
Features of Kharif crop season:
- It begins with the onset of monsoon in May.
- Crops are harvested in September – October.
- Requires more rainfall between 100-110 cm
- It requires loamy or alluvial soil.
“Water scarcity may be an outcome of a large and growing population in India.” Analyse the statement. [3 × 1 = 3]
A large population requires more water not only for domestic use but also to produce more food. Hence, to facilitate higher food-grain production, water resources are being over-exploited to expand irrigated areas for dry-season agriculture. Irrigated agriculture is the largest consumer of water. Post independent India witnessed intensive industrialization and urbanization, creating vast opportunities for us. Today, large industrial houses are as commonplace as the industrial units of many MNCs.
The ever-increasing number of industries has made matters worse by exerting pressure on existing fresh water resources. Industries, apart from being heavy users of water, also require power to run them. Much of this energy comes from hydroelectric power. Most of these have their own groundwater pumping devices to meet their water needs, which results in fragile water resources being overexploited. This has caused their depletion in several of these cities.
“The assertion of social diversities in a democratic country is very normal and can be healthy.” Justify the statement with agruments. 
“Social divisions affect politics.” Examine the statement.
The assertion of social diversities in a democratic country is very normal and can be healthy because:
- This allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend to them.
- Expression of various social diversity results in their cancelling one another out and thus reducing their intensity.
- They also help to uplift the marginalised or deprived section of society which also leads to strengthening of democracy.
Yes, social division affect politics in following ways:
- It strengthens the idea of communal politics.
- Government mainly supports the majority community, by denying the rights of minority community.
- Politics of social division is very normal and can be healthy, it allows people to express their grievances.
- Its outcome depends on how people perceive their identity, or how political leaders raise their demands, and it depends on how the government react to demands of different groups.
“Women still lag much behind men in India despite some improvements since independence.” Analyse the statement. [3 × 1 = 3]
Women still lag much behind men because men are in authority over women in all aspects of the society. The evidences are :
(i) Political participation of women in India very is less when compared to other countries. Only 10% of the total members in Lok sabha are women. The situation is worse in state assemblies where only 5% of the total members are women. The Women reservation bill to encourage the participation of women is still pending since past decade.
(ii) Women have entered into every field but they are still paid less than their male counterparts. The proportion of women in highly paid jobs is still less and studies have showed that on average they work more than men and yet paid less. Although the Equal Remuneration Act provides provision for equal wages should be paid for equal work.
(iii) The literacy rate amongst the women is also low as compared to men. The literacy rate is only 54% as compared to 76% among the men. This shows the discrimination women have to face. Men are still considered to be the head of the family. A lot of dowry issues still emerge everywhere. Men are known to dominate women in every field using strength as a factor. Women are made to stay quiet even in cases of rapes, betrayal etc.
How are political parties recognized as regional and national parties in India? Explain with examples. [1 + 1 = 3]
Democracies that follow a federal system all over the world tend to have two kinds of political parties : parties that are present in only one of the federal units and parties that are present in several or all units of the national level. Every party in the country has to register with the Election Commission. Parties that get a unique symbol and some other special facilities are ‘recognized’ by the Election Commission for this purpose. That is why these parties are called, ‘recognized political parties’. A party that secures at least six percent of the total votes in an election to the Legislative Assembly of a State and wins at least two seats is recognized as a ‘State Party.’ A party that secures at least six percent of the total votes in Lok Sabha elections or Assembly elections in four states and wins at least four seats in the Lok Sabha is recognized as a ‘National party.’
“Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries.” Justify the statement. 
Environment is degraded through the depletion of resources like air, water and soil. It leads to destruction of ecosystem and extinction of wildlife. It is a global issue and has been debated over a decade.
- Pollution in one country may effect the other in form of acid rain, climate change etc.
- Deforestation in some countries may disturb the rainfall pattern in the surrounding countries.
- Land degradation and dam burst can bring massive siltation and flood like situation. Thus, consequences of the actions of one state or country may affect others, this proves that environmental degradation does not respect land boundaries.
Why is the ‘tertiary sector’ becoming important in India? Explain any three reasons. 
How do we count various goods and services for calculating Gross Domestic Product (G.D.P.) of a country? Explain with example.
- First of all in any country several services such as hospitals, educational institutions, banks, transportation etc. are considered as the basic services for any developing country like India.
- As income rises, certain sections of people start demanding more services like tourism, shopping, hospitals, schools etc. This helps in increasing the GDP of the country.
- Over the past decade or so, certain new services such as those based on Information and communication technology have become important and essential in India. Thus, the tertiary sector becomes very important.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the market value of the final goods and services produced during a year within the domestic territory of a country. While calculating GDP, final goods and services are counted to avoid the problem of double counting.
For e.g. a farmer sold wheat to flour mill for ₹ 10 per kg. The mill grinds the wheat and sold the flour to a biscuit company for ₹ 12 per kg. The biscuit company uses the flour, sugar and butter to make 5 biscuit packets. It sold the biscuit to the consumer at ₹ 15 per biscuit packet. Here biscuits are the final goods that are purchased by the consumer. Wheat and Wheat flour are the intermediate goods used in the production of final good. The value of ₹ 75 already includes the value of flour ₹ 12. Hence, only the value of final goods and services are included in GDP.
Describe the importance of formal sources of credit in economic development. [3 × 1 = 3]
Describe the bad effects of informal sources of credit on borrowers.
Importance of formal sources of credit in economic development are as follows:
- It is monitored by the Reserve Bank of India or regulated by government of India and thus helps in bringing’order to the system of lending and borrowing in the country.
- Provides fixed interest rate to all sections of society.
- Limits the scope of using unfair means to repay the payment.
- Less interest rate and accessible to all, rich or poor.
Following are the bad effects of informal, sources of credit:
- They are not subordinate to any government organisation like RBI, thus there is no official backing or monitoring agency.
- Absence of a fixed interest rate increases the scope of exploitation.
- Increases the probability of scope of using unfair means to get back their payment.
- Higher interest rates, with no official records, often lead to debt traps.
How can consumers use their ‘Right to Seek Redressal’? Explain with example. 
Section – C
Who had organized the dalits into the ‘Depressed Classes Association’ in 1930? Describe his achievements. [1 + 4 = 5]
Define the term ‘Civil Disobedience Movement.’ Describe the participation of rich and poor peasant communities in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement.’
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar had organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930.
- The ‘Depressed Classes Association’ was in favour of seperate electorate for dalits.
- It uplifted the dalits against the dominance of upper caste hindus.
- It gave the depressed classes, reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils in proportion to their population.
- The ‘Depressed Classes Association’ enhanced the dignity of marginalised section of society such as SC, ST, OBC.
The term ‘Civil Disodedience’ meant “Refusal by a large group of people to obey particular laws or pay taxes, usually as a form of peaceful political protest”.
In the countryside, rich peasant communities – like the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh – were active in the movement. Being producers of commerical crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices. These rich peasants became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement, organizing their communities, and at times forcing reluctant members, to participate in the boycott programmes. For them, the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.
Poor peasants wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted. They joined a variety of radical movements, often led by Socialists and Communists. Apprehensive of raising issues that might upset the rich peasants and landlords, the Congress was unwilling to support ‘no rent’ campaigns in most places. So, the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remained uncertain.
“Indian trade had played a crucial role in the late nineteenth century world economy.” Analyze the statement. [5 × 1 = 5]
“Series of changes affected the pattern of industrialization in India by the early twentieth century.” Analyze the statement.
“Industrialization had changed the form of urbanization in the modem period.” Analyze the statement with special reference of London.
Indian trade has definitely played a crucial role in the late 19th century world economy.
- Britain had a trade surplus with India, she used this surplus to balance her trade deficits with other countries.
- Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped to pay the so-called ‘home charges’ that included private remittances home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debts and pensions of the British officials in India.
- In the 19th century, thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers went to work on a plantation in mines and for roads and railways construction projects around the world.
- India also provided raw materials to the developing industries of the world.
- India became a major market for the final goods especially for cotton textile industry of Britain.
As the swadeshi movement gathered momentum, nationalists mobilised people to boycott foreign cloth. Industrial groups organised themselves to protect their collective interests, pressurising the government to increase tariff protection and grant other concessions. From 1906, moreover, the export of Indian yam to China declined since produce from Chinese and Japanese mills flooded the Chinese market. So industrialists in India began shifting from yam to cloth production. Cotton piece goods production in India doubled between 1900 and 1912. Yet, till the First World War, industrial growth was slow.
The war created a dramatically new situation. With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined. Suddenly, Indian mills had a vast home market to supply As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs: jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a host of other items. New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts. Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours. Over the war years, industrial production boomed.
The textile mills in the industrial cities of Britain like Leeds and Manchester attracted migrants. By 1851, three quarters of the adult population of Manchester comprised of migrants from rural areas.
(i) A huge number of skilled and unskilled workers came and settled in London to work in the industries like. Footwear, metal and engineering, wood and furniture and stationary items.
(ii) In 1854, the first cotton mill was set up in Bombay and by 1921, there were 85 cotton mills where about 1,46,000 workers were employed.
(iii) Between 1851 and 1931, only one-fourth of the people living in the city were bom in Bombay, rest of them had come from outside. Many of them were from Ratnagiri who had come in search of work to the Bombay hills.
How are industries responsible for environmental degradation in India? Explain with examples. [5 × 1 = 5]
Industries are responsible for environmental degradation in India by following ways:
- The presence of high proportion of undesirable gases such as sulphur dioxide, and carbon monoxide is a product of these industries. They affect the environment majorly.
- Industrial and construction activities, machinery and factory equipment, generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills also make a lot of noise in the environment.
- The main culprits in this regard are paper, pulp, chemical and textile industries that let out dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals etc. with carbon, plastic and rubber into the water bodies.
- The air-borne waste particle contains both solid and liquid particles like dust, sprays, mist and smoke which pollutes the environment.
“Roadways still have an edge over railways in India.” Support the statement with examples. [5 × 1 = 5]
Roadways still have more importance than Railways due to the following features:
- The construction cost of roads is much less than that of railways lines.
- Roads can traverse comparatively more dissected areas and undulating topography.
- Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and can traverse mountains such as the Himalayas.
- Road transport provides door to door service.
- Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide link between railway stations, air and seaports.
Compare the situation of Belgium and Sri Lanka considering their location, size and cultural aspects. [1 + 1 + 3 = 5]
How does the idea of power-sharing emerge? Explain different forms that have common arrangements of power-sharing.
|Belgium is a European country which shares its boundaries with the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Germany||While Sri Lanka on the other hand, is an island nation, a south Asian country, situated south to India.|
|It is a very small country in Europe, even smaller in area than that of the state of Haryana.||It has about 2 crore people, about the same as Haryana. As compared to Belgium, it is much bigger in area.|
|The ethnic composition of Belgium is very complex. Of the total population, 59% lives in the flemish region and speaks the Dutch language. Another 40% of people live in the Wallonia region and speak french and the remaining one per cent of the Belgians speaks German.||Sri Lanka has a diverse population. The social composition of the population of Sti Lanka is as follows:
Sinhala speaking – 74%
Tamil speaking – 18%
Christians – 7%
Power-sharing has emerged as a strong substitute to the idea of undivided political power, which believed in giving power to one person or group of people located in one place. The core principle of power sharing is that people are the source of all political powers. Common forms of power-sharing are:
- Vertical division of power: The sharing of power can be done at the different levels of the govt. – a central govt, for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. This type is usually called the federal government.
- Horizontal division of power: In this form, the power is divided among different organs of govt, such as the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. It places different organs of the government at the same level.
- Power is also shared among different social groups such as religious and linguistic groups eg: community govt.
- Various power-sharing arrangement can also be seen in the way political parties, pressure groups and movements control or influence those in power.
Describe the importance of democratic government as an accountable and legitimate government. [5 × 1 = 5]
- Democracy provides an accountable government because it facilitates periodic, free and fair elections regularly.
- Open discussions are held on all major issues and legislation and decisions are taken on the basis of popular public opinion.
- Democracy gives its citizens the right to information about the government and its functioning.
- Democracy provides a responsive government as it is formed by elected representatives of the people. The representatives also ensure that the programmes for the welfare of the different groups are implemented.
- Democracy generates trust among every individual of the country as it follows the rules given in the constitution.
Why do multinational corporations (MNCs) set up their offices and factories in certain areas only? Explain any five reasons. [5 × 1 = 5]
MNCs, take into consideration certain factors to set up their production units in particular areas.
These areas are generally:
- Where markets are closed.
- Where skilled and unskilled labour is available at low costs.
- Where the favourable government policies which look after their interests are present.
- Where the other factors of production such as raw materials, water, electricity and transport are available and assured.
- Where there are standard safety measures for assured production.
Section – D (Map Questions)
(A) Two features a and b are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked near them. [1 × 2 = 2]
(a) The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held.
(b) The city where the Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place.
(B) Locate and label any three of the following with appropriate symbols on the same given outline political map of India. [1 × 3 = 3]
(i) Kalpakkam – Nuclear Power Plant
(ii) Vijayanagar – Iron and Steel Plant
(iii) Noida – Software Technology Park
(iv) Paradeep – Sea Port
(v) Sardar Sarovar – Dam